Curricular goals are the foundations upon which curricula are built. In this case, the curricular goal should be the incorporation of environmental topics and issues into home economics curricula to improve the sustainability and productivity of the natural resource base, particularly that which is used the household level. Curricular objectives are the purpose of the student's reaming, stated in terms of the reaming behavior to be achieved and the content in relation to which s he is expected to achieve it Knorr in Weidemann Curricular objectives are generally divided into three domains.
First, the cognitive domain, which is the knowledge area and involves the learning of skills, comprehension, application analysis, synthesis and evaluation. Second, the affective domain, includes receiving, responding, valuing and organizing. The third domain specifies the skill to be learned Bloom et al in Weidemann These aspects must be considered when preparing the curricular reorientation.
In redesigning home economics curricula to integrate agricultural and rural development considerations, educators should seek to FAO w :. Develop a realistic knowledge base among the faculty, students and trainers on gender-segregated agricultural labour specialization and resource dynamics in rural households and their relevance to agricultural productivity;.
Facilitate technology and infrastructure development to assist farm women and rural household members in their current specialized activities and alternative income generating activities based upon their untapped potential;. Integrate topics that foster human resource capabilities to support rural development strategies;. Improve skills to assess rural households' resources development potential and technology adoption;.
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Improve skills to integrate rural household resource development potential and technology needs to develop policy, programme and project priorities;. Develop capabilities to assist rural households to improve their resource base and living levels;. Expand the knowledge of men in the consumption dimension of rural household resource dynamics;. Develop abilities in the critical analysis of problems and appropriate policy and project development;.
Develop courses that are interdisciplinary and valid for home economics and agriculture specialists. The above elements can be considered as a point of departure for formulating objectives for the integration of environmental considerations into home economics curricula Moving beyond the important elements cited above, the following may be added to integrate environmental concerns into extension and education curricula, and can guide the formation of curricular objectives:. Develop a realistic knowledge base among the faculty, trainers and students on the linkages between global and local environmental and ecological processes and their relation to rural households and to agricultural productivity cognitive domain ;.
Develop an understanding among faculty, trainers, and farmers of the environmental and ecological processes specific to the country, including an understanding of how human action such as prevailing farming systems and practices impact the environment cognitive domain ;.
home economics | translate to Mandarin Chinese: Cambridge Dictionary
Integrate topics, tactics and strategies for trainers to assess environmental conditions, to conserve and protect environmental resources using various conservation methods, and to ameliorate environmental problems affective domain ;. Integrate topics that enable rural households to assess and to conserve the environmental resources available to them through community participation, group formation and empowerment, and other means of social action affective domain ;.
Facilitate technology and infrastructure development to assist farm women and rural household members to manage the environmental resources available to them affective domain ;. Improve skills that enable trainers to integrate specific natural resource constraints and opportunities of rural households into their curricula in an iterative and flexible manner skill-oriented domain ;.
Improve trainer skills in participatory, organizational, and social action methods, and in informal education in support of popular participation in environmental activities skill-oriented domain ;. Develop the capabilities of rural households to improve their resource base and living levels through environmental amelioration, conservation methods and techniques, or rehabilitation as appropriate skill-oriented domain. Educational planners should first determine the overall approach to training, whether formal or nonformal.
Adopting multi-dimensional, holistic environmental concepts and interdisciplinary approaches to environmental education implies that multiple teaching and delivery methods should be used to convey information that is beyond conventional curricular boundaries. The learning experiences should be devised to relate directly to the experience and needs of the trainees in their field work, and provide them with skills and tools to address the specific natural resource constraints and conditions of rural households with whom they work. These are normally developed once the specific curricular objectives are finalized.
It is helpful to prepare a statement of content sometimes called generalizations , that takes into account the curricular goals and objectives, the developmental level of the trainees, and the national or regional environmental context. The number of generalizations in the curriculum will depend upon the prevailing environmental conditions, age of the students, the duration or length of the unit, and the breadth or depth of the content to be covered Unesco An example of a generalization is.
The economic trade-offs of alternative uses of natural resources should be carefully considered when developing curricular content. In developing the curricular content, the potential impact of the curriculum on the cultural practices of the rural population should also be considered. The choice of content may have broad economic, nutritional, and environmental impacts within the country Unesco For example, a home economics extensionist may promote red meat, black or red beans, or dark green vegetables as a source of iron.
However, the production of each may have specific environmental or economic impacts. The promotion of ret meat through cattle raising may provide a source of iron and a source of income to rural households, but may also have a detrimental impact on the environment through overgrazing and soil compaction under certain conditions. The economic tradeoffs of alternative resource use should be carefully explored while developing the curricular content.
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The broader socioeconomic and biophysical implications of each extension message should be carefully thought through. In considering curricular content, planners should review the curriculum to see if it does the following:. Finally, any economic and technical packages to be introduced through the reoriented curriculum must be economically attractive to the household, and should be thoroughly tested with small groups of farm households prior to dissemination and promotion on a large scale. Similarly, environmental conservation methods and techniques that are appropriate for one area may not be appropriate for other areas.
A number of alternative delivery methods can be considered to meet the needs of nontraditional students.
These include holding extension activities in the evening when people may have more free time, although they may be in addition to the person's existing work load Seltzer Another method for reaching widely dispersed individuals that has been used in India and elsewhere in Asia are "camps," where learners often women stay together for several days during a period of training and educational activities.
This method has been widely used by NGOs and United Nations organizations to organize rural people around environmental rehabilitation activities, as noted in Section 3. It could also be used to train decentralized village-based field workers. Workshops, study tours, and correspondence or distance courses are other alternative delivery methods that have been used in various countries to provide in-service training for extensionists Seltzer Curricular delivery will be determined by the number if trainees, duration of training, budgetary constraints, and degree to which trainees are dispersed.
To administer and implement the curricular reorientation, some type of ongoing coordination or administration will be needed, with representation from instructors and from the learners through a feedback mechanism. A curricular advisory committee comprised of individuals from various training and research institutions in the country is advisable if the curricular reorientation is broad-based. Such a committee could also facilitate the integration of material from research institutes and from other fields not generally represented in home economics curricula, such as watershed management, community development, or forestry.
Given the large amounts of dedication, creativity, and resources that have been invested into educational and extension programs over the past thirty years, it is surprising how little is known about the actual effects that have been produced Unesco ; Uphoff ; Eckman Evaluation is a process for finding out to what extent the curriculum and related reaming experiences that are planned are actually producing the expected results. Curricular development entails considerable preliminary investigation related to the learners' needs.
The evaluation phase is not the end of curriculum development or revision, but rather is part of a continuum and completes the "loop" in the process Unesco As such, it can help educators to revise curricula to meet the changing needs of farmers in a flexible, iterative way. Building an evaluation process into the curriculum should be a basic task in curriculum development. Educational planners should orient the evaluation process around the following questions:. Does a musician hone her skills or home them?
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Are these two verbs interchangeable or do they have discrete meanings? Today we explore the origins and uses of hone and home. Hone entered English as a noun for a pointed rock used as a landmark. In the s, it began to be …. Food deserts lack accessible foods, resulting in diets that are high in processed foods. Find out what you can do to help alleviate food deserts. Eating whole, fresh and plant-based foods doesn't have to mean spending more money than you would on pre-packaged foods. Cooking for the family with fresh produce will be lighter on the wallet with our smart shopping tips.
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Here's some tips for cooking and feeding your family sustainably. We can, and one solution is to empower the next generations. The Home Economics Campaigners Anthony Davidson from BigBarn , the website that allows users to find locally grown produce, has started a petition. We can also: Show kids how to create a meal out of store cupboard basics.
Demonstrate how to whip up a simple pasta and tomato sauce. Or make healthy alternatives of family favourite junk food. Encourage them to be creative with leftovers. Teach children about our food chain and encourage them to be kind to Mother Earth. Not just for the individual children and their future health, but the bigger picture: NHS money not spent on tackling obesity could be redirected to finding cures for cancer. Teaching children where their food comes from allows them to make ethical choices.
Ethical food choices could result in a more sustainable food chain and a happier planet. You might also enjoy Gina Hagler More Sustainable.