There is a white curtain at the back onto which projections will be illuminated. A goose necked lamp bows over a beautifully weaved chair besides which is a table. Both are on a large rug with a simple design. Stage right is a modern table on which Odile Gakire Katese will put the large binder which is her Book of Life.
As we file into the theatre Odile Gakire Katese enters in a striking ensemble of a purple head-covering and a shift. She wears substantial yellow flip-flops, but that does not do justice to the elegance of the footwear. She writes something on a pad of paper and then tears off a sheet, crunches it up and throws that on the floor. She continues writing and again later discards what she has written by scrunching that up and throwing it on the floor.
With such elegance in the set why is there no wastepaper basket? Hmmm I wonder why. Everything we will learn during this production suggests that Katese is fastidious in her care of what she does.
The Tempest: Entire Play
Throwing the paper on the floor is therefore deliberate, but why? The Book of Life is written and performed by Rwandan playwright, director, advocate and cultural entrepreneur Odile Gakire Katese and directed by Ross Manson. The play had its genesis from the Rwanda Genocide of against the Tutsis but the play is really about life.
She asks the audience to draw our idea of a grandfather so she can keep the drawing as her own. And we do. She picks the one she wants to keep. Photos and drawings are projected onto the sheet from behind it. She also has music performed by Ingoma Nshya The Women Drummers of Rwanda, a group of women drummers she organized as one means of healing. Katese reads the letters simply, quietly and also tacks up an accompanying photo on the white curtain at the back of the stage.
All the letters and photos are kept in a large black binder—the book of life—that Katese flips through, selecting the letters she wants to read as she goes. Each letter has an accompanying photo or drawing to be displayed on the curtain. She illuminates these stories by bringing up fables of animals on one side of the world that is dark who want to ask the other side of the world with sunlight if they can have some for themselves.
The letters she reads are extraordinary. One is from a daughter about her father who was guilty of war crimes. How does a daughter work with that? How she does it is part of the humanity of the piece. But is it theatre? I found the premise to find the life in that horror admirable and interesting. There is a lot going on. There are projections of various animals. Some of the grandfather drawings are projected along with cryptic lines that inform the narrative. At times that proved a good distraction from the even delivery. The Book of Life is not a history lesson. The intention of finding the life and humanity of people who either went through or caused the atrocities is worthy.
I wish it was more compelling theatrically. A beautiful production, in spite of some concerns, of a heart-squeezing musical. No one meets them at the airport so they take a bus, but alas they arrive in Bet Hatikva in error there but for some dodgy pronunciation go they…. Bet Hatikva is not burgeoning. Director David Cromer is fastidious in establishing the almost comatose attitude of the bored Israelis and the awkward, uncertain Egyptians.
Cromer knows how to bring out the humour and heartache of situations in body language, reactions of characters, a simple movement of the set among other things. Generally the townsfolk are waiting for something to happen. A revolve in the stage brings in the only payphone and the Telephone Guy Mike Cefalo who stands in front of it daily, waiting for his girlfriend to call. The arrival of the Alexandrian Ceremonial Police Orchestra, starched and at attention, resplendent in their powder blue uniforms, does cause a stir for the Israelis of Bet Hatikva who are in worn t-shirts, jeans and the like.
Kudos to Sarah Laux for her costumes. There is a natural wariness between these Egyptians and Israelis—and there is a language problem in some cases.
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But there is a basic humanity between them. The Egyptians are far from home and in the wrong place and the Israelis can and do help them. There is no hotel so the townspeople billet the orchestra. They then speak the same language of music, family, love and home. Dina takes in Tewfiq Sasson Gabay , the taciturn orchestra leader and Haled Pomme Koch a quiet charmer who thinks every woman has beautiful eyes. Dina tells Tewfiq that she and her mother lived for those times they could watch Omar Sharif in a film or listen to the legendary Egyptian singer Oum Kalthoum.
As Dina, Chilina Kennedy oozes sensuality and longing.
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But Dina is full of passion, pent-up yearning, regret and an ache because of missed chances. And of course Kennedy sings like a dream. Sasson Gabay played Tewfiq in the film and recreates that role for the musical. He tends to mumble, not a good thing. Occasionally the orchestra drowns out a scene on stage, I think particularly of the scene in the roller skating arena. Balance of sound is always a challenge, but it can be met.
Joe Joseph as Haled is a man who can rise to the occasion. He feels awkward in this foreign land but uses charm to break down barriers. This is the national tour of the musical. A young man goes into a store in a mall to buy a Hermes bag for his girlfriend. No Foreigner. He then goes on several quests to be more Chinese. The Production and comment. The production created and directed by Milton Lim and his terrific team from Hong Kong Exile, is stunning, eye-poppingly inventive and compelling in its imagery.
Other images are projected—planes fly across the screen when the scene takes place in a travel agency; butterflies appear in another; a panorama of various locations Hong Kong? April Leung and Derek Chan provide the various voices for all the characters that are projected.
They sit in the darkened theatre wearing head-microphones. In one segment Derek Chan bursts into song in Chinese and is illuminated in this instance. There are no subtitles in English to explain what the song or any of the sporadic use of Chinese means. I must confess the lack of a translation is not the problem. I will quote all the press information provided for some context and explanation:. Multiple storylines begin in a mall and quickly diverge—catapulting the audience across cities, between Cantonese and English, in and out of the afterlife, through the past, present, and future.
A large part of any culture is the expression of it through lore, myths, folktales… and this is sort of a hyper-modernized version of those expressions. Perhaps that was the intent of No Foreigners. If it was then something sure got lost in translation. And he always needs money.
So he decides to woo two housewives of Windsor at the same time in order to curry their favour etc. He sends Mrs. Ford and Mrs. Page the same letter laying on the charm. It was the time before texting, sexting?? There are other subplots: Mr. Page want to marry their daughter, Anne, to a rich, French doctor, Dr. Caius and she wants to marry for love imagine that!
And Mr. Ford is quivering with jealousy regarding his wife and thinks she is untrue at every turn. He needs to learn a lesson too. Lots of teaching is going on in that small town. Director Antoni Cimolino has set the play in in a small town that is obviously Stratford, Ont.
A tip of the hat to Stratford, Ont.
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I smile at that detail. Twee is a wonderful English slang. It means perhaps over the top precious, like doilies on furniture. There are multi-coloured leaves on the ground in the small yard of Mr. Two men arrive to rake the leaves and cart them away did they have composting in ? Page Michael Blake is a neighbourly man, gracious, a genial host and good-humoured, except when insisting who his daughter marries. Page Brigit Wilson is a bit more forceful than her husband. Falstaff Geraint Wyn-Davis is a bit of a rogue who believes that women fancy him. In this case he thinks that Mrs.
Page and Mrs. Ford Sophia Walker both fancy him and so, since he always seems to need money, he decides that he will woo both woman by mail at the same time and get some money in the bargain. This is a small town. Other scholars state that at least several hundred Seminoles remained in the Everglades after the Seminole Wars.
As a result of the Seminole Wars, the surviving Seminole band of the Everglades claims to be the only federally recognized tribe which never relinquished sovereignty or signed a peace treaty with the United States. In general the American people tended to view the Indian resistance as unwarranted. An article published by the Virginia Enquirer on January 26, , called the "Hostilities of the Seminoles", assigned all the blame for the violence that came from the Seminole's resistance to the Seminoles themselves.
The article accuses the Indians of not staying true to their word—the promises they supposedly made in the treaties and negotiations from the Indian Removal Act. After the War of , some Muscogee leaders such as William McIntosh signed treaties that ceded more land to Georgia. Nevertheless, Jackson retorted that they did not "cut Tecumseh 's throat" when they had the chance, so they must now cede Creek lands.
Jackson also ignored Article 9 of the Treaty of Ghent that restored sovereignty to Indians and their nations. Jackson opened this first peace session by faintly acknowledging the help of the friendly Creeks.
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That done, he turned to the Red Sticks and admonished them for listening to evil counsel. For their crime, he said, the entire Creek Nation must pay. Eventually, the Creek Confederacy enacted a law that made further land cessions a capital offense. Nevertheless, on February 12, , McIntosh and other chiefs signed the Treaty of Indian Springs , which gave up most of the remaining Creek lands in Georgia. President John Quincy Adams was sympathetic, and eventually the treaty was nullified in a new agreement, the Treaty of Washington Douglas Hurt wrote: "The Creeks had accomplished what no Indian nation had ever done or would do again — achieve the annulment of a ratified treaty.
At first, President Adams attempted to intervene with federal troops, but Troup called out the militia, and Adams, fearful of a civil war, conceded. As he explained to his intimates, "The Indians are not worth going to war over. However, the state moved to abolish tribal governments and extend state laws over the Creeks. Opothle Yohola appealed to the administration of President Andrew Jackson for protection from Alabama; when none was forthcoming, the Treaty of Cusseta was signed on March 24, , which divided up Creek lands into individual allotments.
The Creeks were never given a fair chance to comply with the terms of the treaty, however. Rampant illegal settlement of their lands by Americans continued unabated with federal and state authorities unable or unwilling to do much to halt it. Further, as recently detailed by historian Billy Winn in his thorough chronicle of the events leading to removal, a variety of fraudulent schemes designed to cheat the Creeks out of their allotments, many of them organized by speculators operating out of Columbus, Georgia and Montgomery, Alabama, were perpetrated after the signing of the Treaty of Cusseta.
Escalating tensions erupted into open war with the United States following the destruction of the village of Roanoke, Georgia, located along the Chattahoochee River on the boundary between Creek and American territory, in May With the Indian Removal Act of it continued into and after as in over 15, Creeks were driven from their land for the last time. The Chickasaw received financial compensation from the United States for their lands east of the Mississippi River. In , the Chickasaws had reached an agreement to purchase land from the previously removed Choctaws after a bitter five-year debate.
The first group of Chickasaws moved in and was led by John M. The Chickasaws gathered at Memphis on July 4, , with all of their assets—belongings, livestock, and slaves. Once across the Mississippi River, they followed routes previously established by the Choctaws and the Creeks. Once in Indian Territory , the Chickasaws merged with the Choctaw nation.
By , about 2, Cherokee had voluntarily relocated from Georgia to Indian Territory present day Oklahoma. The Cherokee Trail of Tears resulted from the enforcement of the Treaty of New Echota , an agreement signed under the provisions of the Indian Removal Act of , which exchanged Indian land in the East for lands west of the Mississippi River , but which was never accepted by the elected tribal leadership or a majority of the Cherokee people.
The sparsely inhabited Cherokee lands were highly attractive to Georgian farmers experiencing population pressure, and illegal settlements resulted. Long-simmering tensions between Georgia and the Cherokee Nation were brought to a crisis by the discovery of gold near Dahlonega, Georgia , in , resulting in the Georgia Gold Rush , the second gold rush in U. Hopeful gold speculators began trespassing on Cherokee lands, and pressure mounted to fulfill the Compact of in which the US Government promised to extinguish Indian land claims in the state of Georgia.
When Georgia moved to extend state laws over Cherokee lands in , the matter went to the U. Supreme Court. In Cherokee Nation v. Georgia , the Marshall court ruled that the Cherokee Nation was not a sovereign and independent nation, and therefore refused to hear the case. Georgia , the Court ruled that Georgia could not impose laws in Cherokee territory, since only the national government — not state governments — had authority in Indian affairs. Worcester v Georgia is associated with Andrew Jackson's famous, though apocryphal, quote "John Marshall has made his decision; now let him enforce it!
Fearing open warfare between federal troops and the Georgia militia, Jackson decided not to enforce Cherokee claims against the state of Georgia. He was already embroiled in a constitutional crisis with South Carolina i.
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Congress had given Jackson authority to negotiate removal treaties, exchanging Indian land in the East for land west of the Mississippi River. Jackson used the dispute with Georgia to put pressure on the Cherokees to sign a removal treaty. The final treaty, passed in Congress by a single vote, and signed by President Andrew Jackson , was imposed by his successor President Martin Van Buren.
Van Buren allowed Georgia , Tennessee , North Carolina , and Alabama an armed force of 7, militiamen, army regulars, and volunteers under General Winfield Scott to relocate about 13, Cherokees to Cleveland, Tennessee. After the initial roundup, the U. Former Cherokee lands were immediately opened to settlement. Most of the deaths during the journey were caused by disease, malnutrition, and exposure during an unusually cold winter. Because of the diseases, the Indians were not allowed to go into any towns or villages along the way; many times this meant traveling much farther to go around them.
They were not allowed passage until the ferry had serviced all others wishing to cross and were forced to take shelter under "Mantle Rock", a shelter bluff on the Kentucky side, until "Berry had nothing better to do". Many died huddled together at Mantle Rock waiting to cross. Several Cherokee were murdered by locals. The Cherokee filed a lawsuit against the U.
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There is the coldest weather in Illinois I ever experienced anywhere. We are compelled to cut through the ice to get water for ourselves and animals. It snows here every two or three days at the fartherest.
It is unknown when we shall cross the river I fought through the civil war and have seen men shot to pieces and slaughtered by thousands, but the Cherokee removal was the cruelest work I ever knew. It eventually took almost three months to cross the 60 miles 97 kilometres on land between the Ohio and Mississippi Rivers. However a few years before forced removal, some Cherokee who opted to leave their homes voluntarily chose a water-based route through the Tennessee, Ohio and Mississippi rivers.
It took only 21 days, but the Cherokee who were forcibly relocated were weary of water travel. Removed Cherokees initially settled near Tahlequah, Oklahoma. There were some exceptions to removal. Approximately Cherokees evaded the U. Those Cherokees who lived on private, individually owned lands rather than communally owned tribal land were not subject to removal. In North Carolina, about Cherokees, sometimes referred to as the Oconaluftee Cherokee due to their settlement near to the river of the same name , lived on land in the Great Smoky Mountains owned by a white man named William Holland Thomas who had been adopted by Cherokees as a boy , and were thus not subject to removal.
Added to this were some Cherokee from the Nantahala area allowed to stay in the Qualla Boundary after assisting the U. Army in hunting down and capturing the family of the old prophet, Tsali who faced a firing squad after capture. Interior Department employee Guion Miller created a list using several rolls and applications to verify tribal enrollment for the distribution of funds, known as the Guion Miller Roll. The applications received documented over , individuals; the court approved more than 30, individuals to share in the funds. A historical drama based on the Trail of Tears, Unto These Hills written by Kermit Hunter , has sold over five million tickets for its performances since its opening on July 1, , both touring and at the outdoor Mountainside Theater of the Cherokee Historical Association in Cherokee, North Carolina.
The falling-tear medallion shows a seven-pointed star, the symbol of the seven clans of the Cherokees. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This is the latest accepted revision , reviewed on 27 September Forced relocation of the southeastern American tribes. This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources.
Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. Main article: Choctaw Trail of Tears. Harkins, George W. Harkins to the American People . Main article: Seminole Wars. Main article: Muscogee. Remini, Andrew Jackson . See also: Chickasaw. Play media. Main article: Cherokee removal. Ethnic cleansing and forced migration , modern terms for the forced relocation of a people Expulsion of the Acadians Hopkinsville, Kentucky Long Walk of the Navajo , a later forced removal Native American genocide Native American slaves Population transfer Potawatomi Trail of Death Timeline of Cherokee removal.
Archived from the original on October 14, Retrieved October 17, Archived from the original on October 18, Archived from the original on June 27, US Data Repository. Archived from the original on October 11, Retrieved January 13, Archived from the original on April 18, New York: Penguin Press.
In William L. Anderson ed. Cherokee Removal: Before and After. Black Heritage Sites. U of Nebraska Press. Knopf Doubleday Publishing Group. The University of Georgia Press. Retrieved October 18, Gannon, Michael, Georgia Historical Quarterly. Archived from the original on February 16, Retrieved February 15, Trail of Tears. Archived from the original on January 22, Retrieved February 5, The Journal of Southern History. Genocide and International Justice. Infobase Publishing.
Retrieved December 16, Emerson, Ralph Waldo. Archived from the original on June 17, Retrieved June 14, History Channel. Archived from the original on December 14, Retrieved December 15, The Choctaw People. United States: Indian Tribal Series. The Trail of Tears Across Missouri. University of Missouri Press. Harkins to the American People". Archived from the original on May 27, Retrieved April 23, Choctaws at the Crossroads. Ode on Melancholy No, no, go not to Lethe, neither twist.
We Two Made One
Ode on Indolence One morn before me were three figures seen,. Shed no tear — O shed no tear Shed no tear — O, shed no tear! Conrad So, I am safe emerged from these broils! Good, if I may guess. You guess aright. And, sister, slurring o'er. I pr'ythee, Conrad, do not overact. Trust me for once. That you may be assured.
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Such salutation argues a glad heart. O would to heaven your poor servant. Albert solus. The Duke is out of temper; if he knows. Aye, Conrad, it will pluck out all grey hairs;. My lord, I was a vassal to your frown,. What need of this? Enough, if you will be. He has not yet return'd, my gracious liege. What then! No tidings of my friendly Arab? More thanks, good Conrad; for, except my son's,. You have my secret; let it not be breath'd.
Where shall I find a messenger? O that the earth were empty, as when Cain. Now, Ludolph! Now, Auranthe! Well, well, I know what ugly jeopardy. Still very sick, my lord; but now I went,. Go no further; not a step more. Thou art. Was ever such a night? What horrors more? O, my poor boy! My son! My ludolph! Grievously are we tantaliz'd, one and all;.
Pensive they sit, and roll their languid eyes Pensive they sit, and roll their languid eyes,. To Autumn Season of mists and mellow fruitfulness,. The day id gone, and all its sweets are gone The day is gone, and all its sweets are gone! I cry your mercy — pity — love!
What can I do to drive away What can I do to drive away. To Fanny Physician Nature, let my spirit blood,. If shame can on a soldier's vein-swoll'n front.