Timm Anke. Symplasmic Transport in Vascular Plants. Ecophysiology and Responses of Plants under Salt Stress. Parvaiz Ahmad. Salt Stress in Plants. Arbuscular Mycorrhizas and Stress Tolerance of Plants. Qiang-Sheng Wu. Advanced Technologies for Managing Insect Pests. Isaac Ishaaya. Microbial Strategies for Crop Improvement. Mohammad Saghir Khan. Artemisia annua - Pharmacology and Biotechnology. Tariq Aftab. Fundamentals of Soil Ecology. David C. Crop Physiology. Daniel Calderini. Biorational Control of Arthropod Pests.
Prospects in Bioscience: Addressing the Issues. Abdulhameed Sabu. Forest Management and Planning. Pete Bettinger. Symbiotic Endophytes. Ricardo Aroca. Microbial Megaplasmids.
Edward Schwartz. Sabine Fillinger. Bacilli and Agrobiotechnology. Tofazzal Islam. Trees: Propagation and Conservation. Ankita Varshney. Endophytes of Forest Trees. Carolin Frank. Root Engineering. Management of Microbial Resources in the Environment. Abdul Malik. Advances in Applied Microbiology. Geoffrey M. Industrial Entomology. Allen I. The Lotus japonicus Genome. Satoshi Tabata.
Naresh Mehta. Soil Microbiology and Sustainable Crop Production. Emma L. Fungicide Resistance in Plant Pathogens. Hideo Ishii. Chlorophyll Fluorescence. Mohamed H. Agricultural Applications. Frank Kempken. Agro-Environmental Sustainability. Jay Shankar Singh. Pradip Kumar Sahu. Environmental and Microbial Relationships. Irina S. Arthropod-Plant Interactions. Guy Smagghe. Plant Macronutrient Use Efficiency. Mohammad Anwar Hossain. Invertebrate Bacteriology. Aurelio Ciancio. Temperature and Plant Development. Based on the multilocus sequence analysis MLSA , the bacterial strains belong to different subgroups of the genus Pseudomonas.
They hydrolyzed oxamyl to oxamyl oxime, but did not use it as a carbon source, instead utilizing methylamine as source of C and N. Three of the four strains contain methylamine dehydrogenase enzyme. Furthermore, all these strains also have a gene highly homologous to a carbamate-hydrolase gene, cehA , which has been found in carbaryl- and carbofuran-degrading bacterial strains. A number of bacterial strains are responsible for the degradation of carbamates, such as carbofuran and carbaryl Bano and Musarrat, ; Yan et al.
Aldicarb is degraded by Stenotrophomonas maltophilia Saptanmasi et al. The biodegradation of organophosphorus pesticides has been extensively studied Singh, A variety of enzymatic systems in bacteria degrades them, for example Acinetobacter sp. Malghani et al.
Rayu et al. Similarly, degradation of cyhalothrin along with other pyrethroides by B. Chanika et al. Both strains hydrolyzed FEN to fenamiphos-phenol and ethyl-hydrogen-isopropylphosphoramidate, although it was only further transformed by P. Due to a decrease in effectiveness of individual pesticides, mixtures containing different active ingredient groups are being developed, especially the combination of pyrethroid and organophosphorus pesticides Moreby et al.
Genetically engineered microorganism GEM inoculants have the potential to degrade these complex pesticides. For example, Zhang et al. They reported that genetically engineered strain X3 is a strong bioremediation agent that showed competitive advantage in complex environment contaminated with MP and Cd. Yuanfan et al. The development of GEMs and dual-species consortia has the potential to be used for degrading different pesticides. Wang et al. Diuron is a broad-spectrum phenylurea herbicide for pre-emergence weed control in a wide bunch of crops.
The degradation spectrum of DP inlcuded fenuron, monuron, metobromuron, isoproturon, chlorbromuron, linuron, and chlortoluron. Its on-site applicability, however, needs further investigation. Microbes that can degrade more than one group of pesticides would be more efficient and economic than those with specific traits. Above all, strains with multiple plant growth promoting traits, such as the ability to solubilize zinc, promote phosphate and chitinase activity, with a high root colonization potential, and biodegrade pesticides would be most effective due to their multi-purpose applicability.
As these strains can efficiently colonize the plant roots and help plant roots to proliferate, phytoremediation is more feasible and makes inoculation with these microbes an economical and applicable strategy for the remediation of pesticide-contaminated sites. Recently, the potential of GME to degrade or accumulate contaminants is also discussed. Their impact is much wider than that of their wild relatives, improving degradation or alteration of catabolic pathways, either to protect the host plant against phytotoxicity or to improve their overall efficiency of phytoremediation.
This is especially suitable when hydrophilic compounds fail to be degraded by rhizospheric microbes due to the rapid uptake by plants Ijaz et al. Pollution to soil, water, and air is caused by release of inorganic chemical waste by industries, auomobiles, construction companies, and fertilizers. Inorganic pollutants mainly include heavy metals which may be detoxified by using microbes in the presence or absence of plant systems.
Heavy metals may be beneficial or harmful for microbes, depending upon their nature and bioavailability Ayangbenro and Babalola, For example, some heavy metals like manganese Mn , Fe, nickel Ni , Mg, copper Cu , chromium Cr , cobalt Co , and Zn are essential micronutrients, required in a number of physiological processes, such as forming parts of enzyme complexes, redox reactions, and the stabilization of molecules through electrostatic interactions Bruins et al.
Other heavy metals, such as arsenic As , antimony Sb , lead Pb , gold Au , cadmium Cd , Al, silver Ag , and mercury Hg , are not essential, and have no biological role in the microbial body Bruins et al. In high concentrations, they can form various complexes in microbial bodies that are highly toxic. Even essential heavy metals like Zn and Ni can also be toxic at higher concentrations. Some microbial strains develop resistance against these heavy metals and they have the ability to detoxify them.
They could be a means to detoxify heavy metals at higher concentrations in the environment. Heavy metals and other ions must first enter the microbial cells for any indication of beneficial or harmful effects on microbial physiology Nies, Many divalent heavy metals, e. As a result, the microbial uptake mechanisms need to be tightly controlled. Microbes use chemiosmosis, a gradient driven, very fast, and unspecific uptake systems for heavy metals Nies, that increase their accumulation within the microbial body.
In microbial cells, toxicity may occur when heavy metals displace essential metals from their binding sites Nies, They may also cause toxicity due to ligand interactions Bruins et al. Heavy metals have the tendency to bind with sulfur-hydrogene SH groups in the microbial body and play a role in the inhibition of sensitive enzymes. The minimum concentration of heavy metals effective enough to bind with SH groups and inhibit enzyme activity is called the minimal inhibitory concentration MIC. Some bacterial strains have an exceptionally high MIC, and therefore have a high resistance to heavy metals.
Bacterial strains with a higher MIC are preferable for bioremediation of heavy metal contaminated sites. Other possible mechanisms of heavy metal resistance in microbes could be intra and extra-cellular sequestration, enzymatic reduction, biosorption, reduction in sensitivity of cellular targets to metal ions, and antioxidant defense system Huang et al. Microorganims release extracellular polymeric substances EPS which bind the heavy metals. Biosorption mechnisms used by EPS from Bacillus subtilis involve functional groups. Heavy metals, such as Cu II binds with anionic oxygen-bearing ligands and form inner-sphere complexes with the EPS functional groups as reported by Fang et al.
These mechanisms can be useful in understanding the survival of microbes in this context. Microbes remove heavy metal contaminants in different ways, such as biosorption, precipitation, biotransformation, bioaccumulation, complexation, enzymatic transformation of metals and phytoremediation Liu et al. In bioaccumulation, microbes retain and concentrate heavy metals in their body. Bioaccumulating microbial strains can be strong candidates for decontamination of polluted soil and water as reported by Akhter et al. They isolated and identified three bacterial strains of B.
Biosorption of heavy metals is the sequestration of positively charged metal ions by ionic groups on cell surfaces Malik, Bacteria-clay mineral interactions are important in the context of metal immobilization and allocation of metals to mineral fraction. The adsorption-desorption mechanisms are affected by microbial composition and diversity, chemical behavior of metals, metal speciation and concentration, modeling method Du et al.
Bacteria in Agrobiology: Plant Nutrient Management by Dinesh K. Maheshwari
The mobility of heavy metals in soils also depends upon type and concentration of ligands and sorbents, such as bacteria-mineral complexes Du et al. For example, citrate and humic acid enhanced Cd adsorption on P. Phosphate ligand increased Cd sorption on P. Recently, Qu et al. They observed that formation of montmorillonite, Pseudomonas putida complex promoted the allocation of Pb to mineral fraction and reported that SCM, EXAFS, and ITC may help in predicting the speciation and fate of Pb in soils and associated environments.
For risk assessments in soils and associated environments, the heavy metal adsorption in complex systems is based on accurate modeling. In another study, Du et al. They reported that B. This suggests that microbial composition and diversity along with biochemical behavior of trace metals are important for metal sorption in microbe-bearing environments.
Qu et al. Both CA and CA-site masking models were in line with ICT data however, it was observed that CA method was excellent in simulating Cd adsorption on bacteria-iron oxides composites at low bacterial and Cd concentrations while wide deviation was observed at higher concentrations.
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Organic matter in complexation with iron minerals helps the adsorption of metals in soil environments. Soil microbes can further imrpove the adsorption when present in these multi-complexes. In soil environments, iron oxides make complexes with organic composites and help in the transformation trace metals. Du et al. They reported that bacterial composites with goethite or humic acid separately and in combination help in adsorption and cycling of Cu but their affinity was less than binary composite of goethite and humic acid. Furthermore, binary and tertiary complexes of bacteria, iron oxide and humic substances affected the sequestration of heavy metals Du et al.
During precipitation and transformation, microbes change the oxidation state of metals and metalloids to make them less harmful. The microbes used in bioremediation demonstrate a wide range of mechanisms, which change the bioavailability, transport properties, sorption characteristics and toxicity of heavy metals Malik, ; Gupta et al. Metals show competitive adsorption for same type of adsorbents as they tend to bound on same types of adsorption sites on the adsorbent Du et al. Similarly, different microbial strains vary in their affinity for the sorption of heavy metals.
For instance, fungal strain Paecilomyces lilacinus XLA was more efficient and eco-friendly than Mucoromycota sp. Some studies aimed to isolate and screen metal-resistant microorganisms from polluted environments for bioremediation purposes Pal and Paul, ; Abou-Shanab et al.
For example, Akinbowale et al. Srivastava et al. In the past decade, attention has been turned toward identification of bacterial strains with the potential to bioremediate polluted soils through the sequestration of toxic heavy metals and degradation of xenobiotic compounds Braud et al. Bioaugmentation of contaminated sites through efficient microbial strains can significantly reduce metal concentrations in polluted soil Emenike et al.
There are a number of bacterial strains belonging to the genera Pseudomonas, Bradyrhizobium, Psychrobacter, Ochrobactrum Lysinibacillus, Rhodococcus , and Bacillus , which have novel traits useful for heavy metal decontamination from polluted environments Dary et al. Fungi are also equally important in the remediation of metal polluted sites. For example, Xu et al. They reported that XLA used biosorption, biotransformation, and bioaccumulation as the major mechanisms for reduction of chromium. The efficiency of these fungal species can be affected by soil conditions, such as pollution level of metals, pH, EC, temperature, and nutrient status of soils.
Phytoremediation is based on hyper-accumulating plant species. The phytoremediation ability of plants depends on environmental conditions, the quantity of heavy metals present at the site, soil type, and microbial number and diversity Ojuederie and Babalola, To accelerate the process, scientists are exploring plant—microbe interactions, combining the capabilities of rhizosphere bacteria to improve metal uptake by the plant. Kuffner et al.
Plant growth, as well as Zn and Cd uptake potential of these strains were measured. The strain Agromyces AR33 almost doubled Zn and Cd extractability, which was attributed to the improvement of release of Zn and Cd specific ligands. Some other strains were helpful in improving Zn and Cd uptake of Salix caprea plantlets.
However, they might have used different plant-microbe interactions to improve heavy metal uptake, except IAA production, ACC deaminase activity and siderophore production. Some PGPR have the ability to improve heavy metal uptake in crops. For example, Ghasemi et al. Plants were inoculated with five rhizobacterial strains previously isolated from O.
Bacteria with ACC deaminase can potentially induce heavy metal stress tolerance in crop plants.
Consequently, they could enhance the phytoextraction and phytoremediation potential of plants. Four bacterial strains from Ni-contaminated soils were isolated by Rodriguez et al. They were identified as Pseudomonas putida Biovar B, and also have plant growth promoting traits, such as indole acetic acid and siderophores production, in addition to ACC deaminase activity. They were tolerant of up to Based its effectiveness from the laboratory results, strain HS-2 was tested in pot experiments.
It was observed that canola plants inoculated with HS-2 strain accumulated more biomass and had higher Ni contents in shoots and roots. According to these results, HS-2 could be a potential inoculant for the phytoremediation of Ni contaminated sites Rodriguez et al. Endophytic bacteria have also been shown to improve heavy metal stress tolerance in crop plants. For example, Sheng et al. G16, from the roots of canola plants grown in Pb contaminated fields. The isolated strains were resistant to heavy metals and successfully improved growth of canola plants in pot experiment.
Zhang et al. J, Pantoea agglomerans Jp, and Pseudomonas thivervalensis Y out of isolates isolated from copper-tolerant plants. They reported that these bacteria promoted plant growth and copper Cu accumulation in canola plants in a pot experiment This supports the endophytic bacterial-assisted phytoremediation strategy for Cu-contaminated environments.
As seen in the above studies, microbes can be part of an innovative strategy to remediate heavy metal contaminated soils. Under varying conditions and in different crops, bacterial strains showed the ability to improve plant growth, such as IAA production, ACC deaminase activity, siderophores production, and heavy metal uptake, through bioaccumulation, biotransformation, precipitation, and biosorption.
However, there are still gaps in the understanding of specific plant-microbe interactions involved in the bioremediation of metal contaminated sites. There are bacterial strains with no IAA and siderospores production ability, and no ACC deaminase activity, which have enhanced metal uptake and accumulation in plant organs.
Bioremediation technologies are necessary for the detoxification of metal-contaminants in polluted environments Emenike et al. The efforts to feed a burgeoning population by increasing yields with new crop varieties and agrochemicals have significantly violated global ecosystems. Moreover, industrialization and urbanization have put extra pressure on soil and water resources around the cities and towns, engulfing fertile agricultural lands. Effluents and exhaust from industries and automobiles pollute soil, water, and atmosphere, add contaminants into food chain, and create unhealthy conditions for human life.
This paper overviewed methods to restore and sustain the environment with the use of microorganisms for site decontamination. It demonstrated that microbes are effective in the degradation of agrochemicals, industrial effluents, and petroleum products. Microorganisms have great potential to decontaminate polluted sites though their direct role in the degradation of organic pollutants and detoxification of inorganic compounds, and their indirect role of decreasing the need for agrochemicals through plant growth promoting mechanisms.
The reviewed literature shows that microbial inoculants can be successfully used as biofertilizers and biopesticides by using diverse plant growth promoting traits. Microorganisms either improve plant growth by direct effects, such as BNF, hormone production, nutrients solubilization, or are indirectly involved in the protection of plants from biotic and abiotic stresses.
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Other mechanisms are antibiotic production for the suppression of phytodiseases, chitinase and catalase activities for the degradation of fungal cell wall, exopolysaccharides and siderophore production to make nutrients unavailable for disease causing organisms, and ACC deaminase activity to reduce the negative impact of stressed environments. Through these and other still unknown mechanisms, microbes improve plant growth and productivity, without fertilizers and pesticides. Most of the studies conducted so far have focused on the use of microbial inoculants for agricultural productivity.
As these microbes may also affect ecology and soil microbial community structure, leading to improved soil health, future research should be focused on quantifying the impact of microbial inoculants on ecosystem and soil health. This review also outlines the potential for microbial inoculants in bioremediation and detoxification of pollutants from the environment. Microbes from different genera of rhizobacteria, endophytes, and fungi have been identified for their ability to degrade organic pollutants and detoxify heavy metals.
They are equally effective in degrading pesticides, azodyes, and polyaromatic hydrocarbons, along with the detoxification of heavy metals from industrial waste. Studies on consortial inoculants should be the priority for the degradation of complex agrochemicals, polyaromatic hydrocarbons, and azodyes. Moreover, root colonization efficiency of these microbes should also be further studied to increase their effectiveness as bioremediators specific plant-microbe interactions in the decontamination of environmental pollutants need to be explored, as it has been suggested that microbes use unknown mechanisms to enhance metal uptake and accumulation in plants.
Research is also needed to find out the pathways for the degradation of industrial effluents by microbial strains. The use of genetically engineered microbes has also been reported in literature. Comprehensive research is needed as little is known about these microbes in situ. Their behavior in a natural environment and their impact on soil health and soil microbial community structure and functional genes should be studied extensively.
Furthermore, the specific mechanisms and genes involved for bioremediation and detoxification of pollutants should also be explored. There is a need to investigate site-specific microbial communities under a wide range of environmental conditions. Another area of interest is the formulation of suitable inoculants and the testing of their environmental impact. Only the tip of the iceberg has been identified, while the vast majority of beneficial species and their potential have yet to be unraveled. MA developed the idea, prepared initial structure, coordinated with co-authors throughout the manuscript development and finalized the submission accordingly.
LP helped in the preparation of manuscript for the sections biofertilizers and biopesticides and finalized the bibliography. TH guided throughout the preparation of the manuscript and in the write-up of the section heavy metal impact on environment, soil fertility and bioremediation of heavy metals. ZZ provided data on use of microbes as biofertilizers and biopesticides and degradation of organic pollutants, and performed final editing of the manuscript before submission. AH collected review on detoxification of industrial effluents by microbes and prepared the draft on the section.
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